Llanover album

This page includes:

  • description of an album of watercolours of Welsh costume, probably owned by Lady Llanover
  • description of each page of the album. All the images are on the Peoples Collection Wales web site Album of watercolours  and the National Library of Wales web site DV299, NLW PA 8137
  • a description of the prints (many of these are on line, see below)
  • contemporaty and later references to the sets of prints
  • the postcards
  • concordance list of the numbers of the watercolours, prints and postcards
  • list of paintings signed by Augusta Hall

Llanover pcs

 

 

 

Postcards of twelve of the thirteen images of Welsh costume, originally produced as prints, after the watercolours thought to have been commissioned by Lady Llanover, now in the album described below. A third print of a girl from Gower, was not published as a postcard.

 

 

 

 

Album of watercolours (DV299, NLW PA 8137)

This is a bound volume, 36.5 x 24.5 cms, with the title: ‘NATIONAL COSTUMES OF WALES’ printed on paper and stuck to the cover. Inside the cover is a small label: ‘Bound by E Rees and Son, Book sellers and C. Abergavenny.’ It was given to the National Library in 1942.

The watercolour sketches of Welsh costume are normally attributed to Augusta Hall (Lady Llanover). She probably owned the album, but may have commissioned an artist to produce most of the watercolours. Two of the numbered series are signed ‘A. Cadwalader’ and two ‘A Cadwallader’ suggesting that they were signed by someone who was not familiar with signing his or her own name. Just one of the watercolours, of a woman in a court dress, is signed Aug: Hall and dated 1838.

It has been suggested that Augusta Hall painted all the watercolours and signed four of them with a pseudonym ‘A Cadwallader / Cadwalader’. There is some evidence that Lady Llanover used this pseudonym elsewhere: in a letter from Lady Greenly (Lady Llanover’s god-mother) to Mrs Hastings, dated Tregoyd, 22.3.1828, Lady Greenly described how she and Lady Llanover went to meet ‘cousin Greenly’ in Bristol, in borrowed clothes and announced themselves as Mrs Cadwalader and Miss Llewellyn. (NLW Maxwell Fraser bequest, CB5)

The album contains a set of 16 watercolours (page 12 has two girls, the rest have one). Most of the watercolours are on paper which has roughly cut or torn edges. Most are stuck directly to the pages of the album; one is stuck to another sheet of paper and one to a sheet of thin card which are stuck to the album. In most cases, there is one picture per folio with the opposite side blank.

Most of the original watercolors are entitled ‘Dull Wisgoedd Cymru Cyflwynedig i Bendefigion a Boneddigion y Dywysogaeth’ at the top. Fewer also have the title in English  ‘Cambrian costumes dedicated to the nobility and gentry of Wales’ or ‘of the Principality’. Most of the titles were written in ink but have been ‘improved’ in pencil or ink to make the lettering clearer.

The numbered and titled watercolours represent the costumes of Gwent (6), the Gower (3), Pembrokeshire (2) and Cardiganshire (2). There are also three portraits of girls in costume without any title and two pencil drawings of young women wearing tall hats with narrow brims. [Note: the word girl is used in this text because this is the word used throughout the album.] Following these are four letterheads with different prints from the Series Welsh Costumes, nos 2, 4, 6 and 8 published by Newman and Co. They are undated but others in the series are dated 1874.

It is possible that the watercolours were based on Augusta Hall’s maids – it is said that she had Welsh speaking maids from different parts of Wales but there are no prints of costumes from Carmarthenshire or any of the counties of north Wales.

Date

The evidence suggest that this album was compiled after 1843 (the date on the title page). Nos. 15 and 16 are on paper with watermarks probably of 1825; the remaining watermarks cannot be seen. The prints at the end of the album are dated to the 1870s or later. The prints derived from 13 of these watercolours have watermarks of 1834, 1835 and a few (of print no. 10) of 1900.  It is likely that the original watercolours date to 1834, the year that Lady Llanover wrote her essay.

Summary description of the numbered and titled costumes.
There are two different views of each subject except one, resulting in just seven different costumes. All are of young women who appear to be wearing very small shoes on stockinged feet.

Several are wearing tall hats but these are not Welsh hats: they have various breadths of brim some of which are curved. One has a ‘man’s’ hat; two have black straw bonnets; one has a white cotton bonnet and one has a white bonnet with a red tasselled cloth over it, presumably covering padding for the pitcher she is carrying on her head.

Several (those from Gwent and the Gower) have gowns with puffed shoulders. Four are wearing long mittens or sleeves which cover the hand (fingerless, up to the elbow). One is putting on yellow sleeves with red stripes. One of the girls is knitting.

The un-numbered and untitled coloured portraits (numbers 16, 17, 18) are slightly different from the rest. No 16 is very similar to no. 8 (print no. 6)

The costumes include elements of what was then contemporary modern fashion – high waistlines, puffed sleeves and caps with lappets.

Most of the colours of the check fabrics represented in these watercolours are unlike any surviving costume fabrics or in any other watercolours or coloured prints but this might have something to do with the inexperience of the artist.

Description of each page of the album 

1     page i   title page
Coat of arms, Prince of Wales feathers; ICH DIEN; HIR OES I’N TYWYSOG NI on cartouch; shield of the Prince of Wales with four lions and ‘24 Portman Square, June 24, 1843’ printed at the bottom.
On the reverse is a printed programme of a concert in italic script. The top has been stuck to the page so it is not possible to see whether there is a title to it.

Welsh_peasant_girl_in_the_costume_of_a_large_part_of_Gwent_ffu00002

2     page 1 [print no 1]
‘Cymraes ieuanc wladaedd mewn Dull-wisgad rhan ehang o wlad Gwent Rhif 1’
‘Welsh Peasant Girl in the Costume of a large part of Gwent No 1’
Signed ‘A Cadwalader’ [the second l may be combined with the following a]
The titles have been crossed out in pencil.
Girl with tall hat, long mittens, blue and orange striped gown with short, puffed sleeves and tail at the back, brown skirt, red and white apron, ornate shawl.

 

 

 

Welsh_peasant_girl_in_the_costume_of_a_large_part_of_Gwent_ffu00003

 3     page 2 [print no 2]
‘Cymraes ieuanc wladaedd mewn Dullwisgad rhan ehang o wlad Gwent no 2’
‘Welsh Peasant Girl in the Costume of a large part of Gwent No 2’
The titles have been crossed out in pencil.
Rear view of  no 2 (print no. 1) but with a cotton cap with lappets hanging down the side and no hat.

 

 

 

 

Welsh_peasant_girl_in_costume_ffu00004

4     page 3 [print no 3]
‘no 3 Rhif 3 same as no 4’ [written in pencil]
No title at the top or label at the bottom.
Girl with tall hat, white cap, blue shawl, brown betgwn with short tail, brown skirt, red and blue striped apron. She has one yellow with red striped sleeve on and is putting on another.
The print of this image has ‘HC5’ on it

see Pembrokeshire jackets

 

 

Welsh_girl_in_the_costume_of_Pembrokeshire_ffu00005

5     page 4 [print no 4]
Mounted on thin card
[Pembrokeshire (rear view of figure on p. 3)]
‘Dull wisgoedd Cymru Cyflwynedig i Bendefigion a Boneddigion y Dywysogaeth’
‘Cambrian costumes dedicated to the nobility and gentry of Wales’
‘Rhif 4 Cymraes ieunc mewn dull-wisgad H..ydd Benfro’
‘No 4 Welsh Girl in the costume of Pembrokeshire’
Rear view of number 4, seated and has the sleeves on her knee. The strip of black silk on the sleeves of the gown is visible in this view, but not on number 4. There are two buttons at the small of the back of the gown.

see Pembrokeshire jackets

 

Welsh_girl_in_costume_(1749)_ffu00006

6     page 4a
Mounted on dark red paper
‘August Hall fec.     April 1749   1838’
woman in court dress
This is one of Augusta Hall’s illustrations for each of the first six months of the year, the rest of which are in the Llanover collection in the National Library of Wales.

 

 

 

Welsh_girl_in_the_costume_of_Gower_ffu00007

7     page 5 [print no 5]
‘Dull wisgoedd Cymru Cyflwynedig i Bendefigion a Boneddigion y Dywysogaeth’ [no English title]
‘Rhif 5 Cymraes ieunc mewn dull-wisgad Bro Gwyr’
‘No 5 Welsh girl in the costume of Gower’
Girl in tall hat, high-necked gown with puffed shoulders and blue skirt. She is wearing a tall hat and cap with lappets

 

 

 

 

Welsh_girl_in_the_costume_of_Gower_ffu00008

8     page 6 [print no 6]
‘Dull wisgoedd Cymru Cyflwynedig i Bendefigion a Boneddigion y Dywysogaeth’ [no English title]
‘Rhif 6 Cymraes ieunc mewn dull-wisgad Bro Gwyr’
‘No 6 Welsh girl in the costume of Gower’
A word or two have been scratched out underneath the labels. The number 6 appears to be written over a scratched-out number 7
This is a side view of number 7 (print no. 5) but the skirt is a different colour and  she has a red shawl with long tassels (a whittle), wrapped around her in the way suitable for carrying a child. She has a tall hat with curved brim,  purple dress and brown skirt. This is very similar to no. 16, (page 14 below)

 

 

Welsh_girl_in_the_costume_of_part_of_Gwent_ffu00009

9     page 7 [print no 7]
‘Dull wisgoedd Cymru Cyflwynedig i Bendefigion a Boneddigion y Dywysogaeth’ [no English title]
‘Rhif 7 Cymraes ieunc mewn dull-wisgad rhan o wlad Gwent’
‘No 7 Welsh girl in the costume of Part of Gwent’
Girl in black straw bonnet, blue and black striped gown with puffed sleeves, long yellow mittens, multi-coloured shawl, apron, and holding a blue cloak.

 

 

 

Welsh_girl_in_the_costume_of_part_of_Gwent_ffu00010

10   page 8 [print no 8]
‘Dull wisgoedd Cymru Cyflwynedig i Bendefigion a Boneddigion y Dywysogaeth’
‘Cambrian costumes dedicated to the nobility and gentry of the Principality’
‘Rhif 8 Cymraes ieunc mewn dull-wisgadd rhan o wlad Gwent’
‘No 8. Welsh girl in the costume of Part of Gwent’
Signed (in pencil) A Cadwallader [sic]
Same as no 9 (print no. 7), seated and wearing a cloak. The shawl is differently coloured and she is not wearing sleeves. On the postcards, the cloaks and skirts are differently coloured. [A watercolour copy of this, with the cloak coloured red is in NLW Album 302, folder 14]

 

 

Welsh_girl_in_the_costume_of_part_of_Gwent_ffu00011

11   page 9 [print no 9]
‘Dull wisgoedd Cymru Cyflwynedig i Bendefigion a Boneddigion y Dywysogaeth’
‘Cambrian costumes dedicated to the nobility and gentry of the Principality’
‘Rhif 9 Cymraes ieunc mewn dull-wisgad rhan o wlad Gwent’
‘No 9. Welsh Girl in the costume of part of Gwent’
signed: ‘A Cadwallader’ [sic]
Girl in ‘man’s’ felt hat with broad, floppy brim, bonnet with coloured ribbons, red fringed shawl over a yellow cotton or silk shawl. blue skirt, brown underskirt. She is knitting a stocking.

 

 

Welsh_girl_in_the_costume_of_part_of_Gwent_ffu00012

12   page 10 [print no 10]
‘Dull wisgoedd Cymru Cyflwynedig i Bendefigion a Boneddigion y Dywysogaeth’
‘Cambrian costumes dedicated to the nobility and gentry of Wales’
‘Rhif 10 Cymraes ieunc mewn dull-wisgad rhan o wlad Gwent’
‘No 10. Welsh girl in the Costume of Part of Gwent’
signed: ‘A Cadwalader’
Same as no. 11 (print no. 9) but the apron is striped purple and the green floral skirt is visible. She is seated and is reading and has knitting needles and wool on her knee.
The letters in the book are just legible – CYC / CH / CRA / WN and these are much clearer on the prints.

 

 

Welsh_girl_in_the_costume_of_Cardiganshire_ffu00013

13   page 11 [print no 11]
‘Dull wisgoedd Cymru Cyflwynedig i Bendefigion a Boneddigion y Dywysogaeth’ [no English title]
‘Rhif 11 Cymraes ieunc mewn dull-wisgad Ceredigion’
‘No 11 Welsh Girl in the costume of Cardiganshire’
Girl with tall hat and narrow brim, white cotton bonnet, small yellow floral shawl, red striped gown with silk? band on the short sleeves and skirt, blue and white apron, long black mittens. She is holding flowers in her apron. Most of the surviving gowns in museum collections are of this style.

[8 pages cut out]

see Cardiganshire and Carmarthenshire gowns

 

Welsh_girl_in_the_costume_of_part_of_Gower_(feft)_and_Cardiganshire_ffu00014

14 page 12
Two pictures on one sheet of paper. Number ‘12’ in a circle written in pencil at the top right-hand corner of the page.
‘Dull wisgoedd Cymru Cyflwynedig i Bendefigion a Boneddigion y Dywysogaeth’
[no English title]

14a  [print no 12]
‘Cymraes ieunc mewn dull-wisgadd Bro Gŵyr’
‘Welsh Girl in the costume of Gower’
Girl with white bonnet, small yellow shawl, red horizontally striped gown, blue skirt, blue and white apron, with a pitcher on a red tasselled cloth on her head.

14b      [print no 13]
‘Cymraes ieunc mewn dull-wisgad Ceredigion’
‘Welsh girl in the costume of Cardiganshire’
Same dress as no. 13 (print no. 11), seated on a stool with cat. Note the two buttons at the small of her back. The shape of the brim is different on the prints. This was not reproduced in the set of 12 postcards.
ffu00015a
15   page 13
no title
Pencil sketch (rear view) of a woman in a hat, with shawl and skirt.
The watermark of this and number 16 suggests that they both came from the same piece of paper which was cut down the middle. The watermark appears to be: HAGAR & SON [18]25

 

 

 

 

 

Welsh_girl_in_costume_ffu00016

16   page 14 [opposite page 13]
no titles or labels
Watercolour, unidentified. Girl with short hat with curved rim over a goffered white cap; red shawl (whittle) worn in a form suitable for carrying a baby; white loose bedgown with blue and red stripes; brown skirt. This is very similar to no. 8 (print no. 6) above.

 

 

 

 

Welsh_girl_in_costume_ffu00017

17   page 15
No title but marked ‘(14)’ in pencil
Coloured portrait of a girl, unidentified, seated seated on stool with white cap with lappets, red and white shawl tucked into her white apron, black or dark blue and white striped gown, blue skirt.

 

 

 

 

 

Welsh_girl_in_costume_ffu00018

18   page 16
No title but marked ‘(15)’ in pencil
Coloured portrait, unidentified, seated girl with white cap under tall hat with curved brim, small yellow shawl tucked into her apron, red and white striped gown with short, puffed sleeves, red and dark blue striped apron, blue striped skirt just visible.

 

 

 

 

Welsh_girl_in_costume_ffu00019

19  page 17
No title
Pencil sketch, front and back view, probably of the same unidentified girl wearing a tall hat with curved brim; shawl hanging in a triangle down her back; gown with short, puffed sleeves and a tail; apron.

 

 

 

 

 

The following four prints published by Newman and Co are on letter paper with the picture in the top third. They are held in place by inserting the four corners into 45 degree slits in the page.

Welsh_costume_ffu00020

20 page 18  
Print, ‘Welsh Costume’ Newman no 2
18 x 11.3 cms

 

 

 

 

536px-Welsh_costume_ffu00021

21 page 19
Print, ‘The Bidding’, Newman no 6
18 x 11.3 cms

 

 

 

 

Welsh_costume_ffu00022

22 page 20
Print, ‘Going to Market’, Newman no 4
17.6 x 11.3 cms

 

 

 

 

Welsh_girls_in_costume_ffu00023

23 page 21
Print, ‘Welsh Costumes’, Newman no 8
18 x 11.3 cms

 

 

 

 

24 page 22
Blank sheet with slits similar to previous 4 pages
There are 40 blank pages with quite a number of pages cut out at irregular intervals.
At the back there is a loose recipe for ‘Apple Snow from Mrs Reihop [?]’

The prints

These have titles in Welsh and English based on the text written on the originals.

Dull wisgoedd Cymru cyflwynedig i bendefigion a boneddigion y dywysogaeth / Cambrian costumes dedicated to the nobility and gentry of Wales.
The hand-colouring of the prints occasoinally varies from the original watercolours and from print to print.

For images of the full set of the prints, with variations and annotations, see NLW Album 302 (details below)

1 Welsh Girl in the costume of part of Gwent
2 Welsh Girl in the costume of part of Gwent
3 Welsh Girl in the costume of Pembrokeshire
4 Welsh Girl in the costume of Pembrokeshire
5 Welsh Girl in the costume of Gower
6 Welsh Girl in the costume of Gower
7 Welsh Girl in the costume of part of Gwent
8 Welsh Girl in the costume of part of Gwent
9 Welsh Girl in the costume of part of Gwent
10 Welsh Girl in the costume of part of Gwent
11 Welsh Girl in the costume of Cardiganshire
12 Welsh Girl in the costume of Gower
13 Welsh Girl in the costume of Cardiganshire

Date of the prints

The fact that Rev. T. Price of Crickhowel (see below) was sent sets of the prints in August, 1834, and some of the prints have  watermarks dated 1834 and 1835, suggests that there were several print runs.

In NLW Drawings volume no 302 there is set of 9 loose prints of print no. 10, 8 of which are on paper watermarked ‘J Whatman 1900’ which suggests that the plates were still available and prints were still being produced at the beginning of the 20th century to make up complete sets. There is note with them: ‘To paintings by[?] cupboard. Welsh Costumes by Lady Ll. no 10 reproduced for me as they were wanting [?]’. The present location of the plates is unknown, as is the name of the printer.

Sets of the prints
There seem to be at least three editions of the costume prints.
(a) 34 x 22 cms on what is now slightly brown paper
(b) 35.9 x 25.4 on white paper watermarked J Whatman and the date 1834 (2 known examples) and 1835 (8). Paper with the Whatman watermark was produced by one of the best paper manufacturers of the early 19th century and the paper tended to remain white.
(c) 35.9 x 25.4 on white paper watermarked J Whatman and the date 1900 (8 of print number 10 are known).

NLW Drawings Volume 300 [given by Sir John Williams]
Frontice piece: Frances Jane Blackwell, September, 1837 (written by hand)
This is a bound set of the 13 prints. size: 31.5 x 20.5 cms. No other printed or hand written text.

NLW Drawings Volume 301 [given by Mrs Walter Roch, Raglan (1941)]
This is a bound set of the 13 prints. Volume size: 24 x 18.5 cms, pages are 23.3 x 17 cms
‘Cambrian Costumes’ stamped in the spine. ‘[1836]’ and ‘JHD’ in pencil on the inside cover
Pages bound with tape with spare linen tabs for additional pages at the back.
There are several shades of paper colour from white to light brown.

Cardiff Central Library
Presentation copy of the 13 plates bound with a copy of the essay.
‘Rhodd Gwenynen Gwent, Caradawc Tachwedd, 1836’
(From Gwenynen Gwent [Lady Llanover] to Caradawc [presumably the antiquary Thomas Bevan (‘Caradawc y Fenni’, 1802-82) who, with Rev. Thomas Price (‘Carnhuanawc’, 1787-1848) and Lady Llanover established Cymdeithas Cymreigyddion y Fenni, (the Welsh Society of Abergavenny) in 1833.]
Bound together in volume with red leather cover embossed with gold title and pattern.
Title on cover: PRIZE ESSAY ON THE LANGUAGE AND COSTUMES OF WALES / MRS HALL.
The volume is 31.5 x 23.2 cms; the plates are 30.7 x 22 cm (plus whatever is included in the binding); the essay is 22.7 x 13 cm (plus whatever is included in the binding)
Essay plus notes: English pp. 18; Welsh pp. 18, but p. 14 is blank
5 of the plates have watermark ‘J Whatman, 1835’ (nos. 2, 3, 6, 8, 10)
no catalogue number
Seen by JR Jones in the 1920s (JR Jones collection, NLW, vol. 1, p. 5) and seen by Michael Freeman 16.11.2016

NLW Drawings Volume 302 [given by Mrs Walter Roch, Raglan (1941)]
This box contains 14 paper folders containing various numbers of the 13 prints, plus a set marked ‘Proofs’.
Most of the images are printed on one of two sizes of paper: 33.6 x 21.5 and 33.6 x 24.6
This contains 68 prints, at least 1 for each of the 13 subjects.

  • 2 (one of each of no. 4 and no. 9) are watermarked ‘J Whatman 1834’
  • 8 (of numbers 3, 4, 5, 7, 11, 12) are watermarked ‘J Whatman 1835’
  • 8 examples of no 10 are watermarked ‘J Whatman, 1900’

additional information about the loose prints:
no 4 There are three different sizes of paper on which this image is printed
no 10 The folder contains a note ‘To paintings by[?] cupboard. Welsh Costumes by Lady Ll. no 10 reproduced for me as they were wanting [?]’ Eight of the nine prints in this folder are watermarked J Whatman 1900 suggesting that additional prints were produced in or after 1900 to make up complete sets.
no 11 One of the prints has a brown skirt. It is possible that this is a result of fading.
Folder 14
written on cover: ‘Cambrian Costumes – first proofs of nos 1-13’
written on a scrap of paper inside:  ‘13 Welsh Costumes 1st proofs’

The proofs appear to be identical to the other prints except that seven have painted heads and hats carefully cut and stuck over the originals and no. 5 has an arm attached as well. All these have the heads looking in a different direction to the originals and have Welsh Hats (conical crown of different heights and a flat rim). These alterations were not adopted for the final print run.
No 8 has an original watercolour attached to the print (with a pin) and is identical to the original watercolour except the cloak is red.

The date of these annotations is unknown.

Number                                               Watermark
1          low hat added                         J Whatman 1835
2          no alterations                           none
3          medium hat added                  none
4          low hat added                         none
5          tall hat and right arm added   J Whatman 1835
6          medium hat added                  none
7          no alterations                           none
8          watercolour attached (with illegible watermark)
9          no alterations                           none
10        no alterations                           none
11        medium hat added                  J Whatman 1835
12        no alterations                           none
13        medium hat added                  none

Other collections of the prints:
There are some other copies of prints in the National Library of Wales (framed), the National Museum of Wales and at Abergavenny Museum making a total of 183 in public collections. There were some in Cardiff Free Library in the early 1920s which included ‘rhif 10 date as watermark J Whatman 1900; Ist Proof and (pencilled); Revised proof 1900 Llanover’ (JR Jones collection, NLW, vol. 1, p. 10; vol. 2, p. 144).

A few are in private collections.

JR Jones had a set in the 1920s ‘My set of 13 of Cambrian Costumes dedicated to the Nobility and Gentry of Wales (no 1 spoilt) measure 13 3/10 x 8 ½ ins’
JR Jones collection, NLW, vol. 4, p. 2

Publisher and printer
None of the prints have the name of the publisher or printer, but in JR Jones notebooks there is a loose sheet which has the following extract from a sale catalogue:
[printed] “Welsh. Cambrian Costumes; dedicated to the Nobility and Gentry of Wales.
The Complete set of 13 full-length coloured plates of Welsh Women in their National Dress.
Folio, original printed wrapper.
London, Ackermann, 1834
A very rare series of Costume plates £6 18s”
[ms. addition by J R Jones] The cutting was in Maggs Bros Fine Arts Catalogue no 409, dated 1921. It establishes the fact that these thirteen plates were originally published in printed wrapper by Ackermann in 1834.]
JR Jones collection, NLW, vol. 4
Ackermann published prints of costumes but there is, so far, no other evidence that they published the Llanover set. It is possible that they just sold them.

References to the set of prints
It has been assumed that the publisher of these prints was Lady Llanover, and the reference to Mrs Hall’s Book of Welsh costumes (see below) seems to confirm this but one piece of evidence suggests otherwise. A letter from Thomas Price (Carnhuanawc) to Taliesin Williams of Merthyr Tydfyl (son of Iolo Morganwg) refers to thirteen prints of Welsh costumes by a young artist. Both these men knew Augusta Hall well and if she had been the artist, Price would surely have named her in his letter unless she had asked him not to. The fact that she isn’t mentioned at all also implies that she also had nothing to do with the production of the prints. There is little doubt that this letter is referring to the costume prints ascribed to Augusta Hall: no other sets of costume prints are known to have been produced at the time.

Crickhowel, August 12th, 1834
Dear Sir
I have just received a parcel containing some prints of Welsh costume just published by a young artist, with a request that I would assist in promoting their sale – and as the work has been undertaken with a good deal of spirit and [?] I persuade myself that you will excuse the liberty I am taking in soliciting your co-operation. And under this [?] I send you three sets which I shall feel obliged by your placing in the hands of some stationer in Merthyr who will be likely to get them off and request him to place them in his windows. The terms are 1/6 for each if sold separately – or else 15/- a set. The usual commission of 25 percent to be allowed out of this – but what may remain unsold to be returned to me in six months – should anymore be called for if the stationer will apply to me I will write to the artist and procure a supply.
Hoping to have the pleasure of meeting you at the Eisteddfod,
I remain dear sir, yours very truly
T Price
Three sets of Welsh costumes, 13 prints each set, price 1/6d separately or else 15/- a set
NLW, Iolo Morganwg: Taliesin ab Iolo letters, 561

An newspaper advert for Edward Parry, Bookseller, Stationer, Publisher, Chester includes the following which must be referring to the prints based on those in the album which are the only illustrations of costume known to have been dedicated to the Nobility and Gentry of Wales. However, they are one-third of the price of those above.
He has just received a variety of the CAMBRIAN COSTUMES, coloured after nature and dedicated to the Nobility and Gentry of Wales. Just Published, Price 6d
Chester Chronicle, 4 November 1836

It is possible that one of the bound volumes of prints was that referred to in a letter from Lady Greenly in 1837:
… Many of the young people were very correctly dressed from Mrs Hall’s Book of Welsh costumes, and looked extremely well, particularly Miss Devereux.
NLW Maxwell Fraser bequest, CB5, includes a typed transcript of Lady Greenly’s diary and letters, 1805-1837, including a letter from Lady Greenly to Mrs Hastings, 23rd October 1837 (quoted by Fraser, Maxwell, ‘Benjamin Hall, M.P. for Marylebone, 1837-1839 (NLWJ, 1964), p. 316)

Another reference to a bound volume of the prints with the essay was published in 1943
Welsh Woman’s Hats
Sir, – I noticed in the Western Mail a letter on the subject of Welsh Women’s hats It so happens that I had occasion to get my father’s copy of “Cambrian Costumes” with a Welsh Essay by Mrs Hall (Lady Llanover).
The essay … on the advantages resulting from the preservation of the Welsh costume and national costumes of Wales … won a prize at the Gwent and Dyfed Royal Eisteddfod on 1834. There are 13 plates, of which eight have high hats, two have hats of the type described by the correspondent, and two have no hats at all while the thirteenth hat is a cross between the high hat and the low.
It would appear from this that high hats were common at least in 1834. Unfortunately, in her essay, Lady Llanover does not describe the hats but only refers to them as “being neat and serviceable beaver.” The main point of the essay as regards costume is that the true Welsh costume is going out to the detriment of the present generation. This would suggest that the costume to which Lady Llanover was referring was in use some time prior to 1834 as she stresses the contrast between the mother attired in sensible Welsh costume as compared with the daughter dresses in the follies of the latest fashion. Incidentally, none of the tall hats portrayed is precisely the shape as appears on Dame Wales in cartoons, etc. They are far more like what we know today as a top hat, but would presumably be made of beaver and not silk. Similarly the costumes are not of the type that is considered typically Welsh.
Dec 14. ‘INTERESTED’.
Western Mail 20 Dec 1943

It appears that the prints were exhibited in Abergavenny during the Eisteddfod there in 1836:
The ball at the Angel Inn, on Thursday night, was attended by a very numerous party, when the “Hen Iaith” was spoken in several quarters of the room, and at the supper table, by several ladies and gentlemen, of the first families in the principality. The room was hung round with beautifully coloured engravings of the costumes of Wales, (The Silurian, December 3rd, 1836)

When the original album arrived at the National Library of Wales, it was reported that ‘An interesting gift … consisting of the original drawings of the now well-known set of Lady Llanover’s ‘Cambrian Costumes’ made in the first instance to illustrate her prize-winning essay at the Gwent and Dyfed Royal Eisteddfod in 1834. Reproductions of these are available at the Library’ (Anon, Journal of the National Library of Wales, 1947, p. 156). The reproductions were presumably the postcards printed by Oxford University and it was these which made them so well-known: there is little evidence that the prints had been published in any form since 1835. There is no evidence that the original prints were published with her essay: when the titles are included, they are on paper significantly bigger than the pages on which the essay was printed.

Postcards of the prints
A set of 12 postcards of prints based on the drawings were first published by the National Library of Wales and printed by Oxford University by 1947. Another set were printed at the National Library, possibly in the 1970s. They are entitled ‘Cambrian Costumes by Lady Llanover’ followed by their number and the place the style of costume was claimed to represent.

While the poses and type of costume is identical to the original prints, the text was left out and the colouring is slightly different to the originals, but is the same as most of the set PB463-473 (except for no 10 which seems to be based on the prints on larger paper). They were also published in Megan Ellis, Welsh Costume and Customs; The National Library of Wales : Picture book no. 1 (National Library of Wales, 1951 and 1958).

Concordance list of numbers and titles of the watercolours, prints and postcards
Album number              print number                postcard number
no. 1 Gwent                     no. 1 part of Gwent       1
no. 2 Gwent                    no. 2 part of Gwent       2
no. 3 [Pembrokeshire] no. 3 Pembrokeshire    3
no. 4 Pembrokeshire    no. 4 Pembrokeshire    4
dress, ‘April 1749’        [Court dress signed and dated by Augusta Hall]
no. 5 Gower                   no. 5 Gower                     5
no. 6 Gower                  no. 6 Gower                     6
no. 7 Gwent                  no. 7 part of Gwent         7
no. 8 Gwent                  no. 8 part of Gwent        8
no. 9 Gwent                  no. 9 part of Gwent        9
no. 10 Gwent                no. 10 part of Gwent      10
no. 11 Cardiganshire   no. 11 Cardiganshire      11
[no. 12] Gower             no. 12 Gower                   [not published]
[no. 13] Cardiganshire no. 13 Cardiganshire    12
(no. 14) no title             no print                           no postcard
(no.15) no title             no print                           no postcard

Paintings by Augusta Hall
The only watercolour signed by Augustus Hall in the album is the one of a woman in a court dress. There are other paintings signed by her in the National Library of Wales:

NLW PB6178, The Bard

NLW PA3982, Self Portrait. (Published in Maxwell Fraser, NLW Journal, XIII (19??), plate XIII.17)

NLW MS781A  Album of Angharad Llwyd

This album contains:

p. 31 Portrait in pencil and ink ‘Carnuanawc’ [sic] ‘AH [Augusta Hall?] fecit, Llanover, 1837’

The reverse is inscribed ‘The Rev Thomas Price of Crickhowel who died 1848’ in a different hand – probably that of the owner who added detail of this sort to most of the illustrations.

p. 75 Pencil sketch ‘Sir B Hall by his Lady’ showing Sir Benjamin Hall playing with a puppet on strings.

p. 77 Pencil sketch of Angharad Llywd (died 1866), ‘ Llanover AH Fecit. Nov 7 1843’ showing the owner of the album wearing a very large pointed cotton hat. (Published in Maxwell Fraser, NLW Journal, plate XIII.18)

p. 81 watercolour ‘Lord Stafford by Augusta Hall’

p. 85 watercolour ‘Professor Meyer’ Aug:Hall fecit, 1843

p. 101 watercolour of an island on which a series of follies appear to have been built, surmounted by a goat. Two people are paddling coracles in the lake. ‘Llyn-over a’r Ynys Gafr, ac yn Arglwydd Stafford a Mr Meyer’ ‘Aug: Hall G.G. [Gwenynen Gwent] Nov 2 1843

p. 109 watercolour of a woman in Welsh costume and a Welsh hat with a leek attached to it. ‘E Madocs of Tre-Madoc by Aug: Hall GG [Gwenynen Gwent] Llanover 1842.

On the back, added in the hand of the rest of the additional comments ‘later Mrs Marmaduke Gwyn’

Lady Llanover illustrated the book “The Origin, Rise, and Progress of the Paper People,” which was written by Jane Williams (” Ysga Fell”), of Talgarth. (1856)

Advertisements