Welsh costume doll D18

number : D18

D18 front D18 reverse

St Fagans : 30.313.189

Costume: cap, apron, bedgown, skirt, two underskirts, shawl, neckerchief, knitting; and with baby’s clothes comprised of: cap, dress, underskirt.

Body: Wood with jointed limbs. The shoulders and head are painted and varnished. The baby is also made from wood and constructed in the same way with jointed limbs and painted features.

Hat: none

Cap: net with lace trim and silk ribbon

Height : 27cm; length of baby without dress 8cm.

Date: Circa 1845 – dated by Tecwyn Vaughan Jones

Provenance and history: Donor’s family from Brecon

CONSERVATOR’S REPORT
For an explanation of the structure of this report see Welsh doll project. See also glossary of terms

St Fagans : 30.313.189
item : Doll
number : D18
component : Whole
construction : A wooden doll with set of clothes comprised of: cap, apron, bedgown, skirt, two underskirts, shawl, neckerchief, knitting; and with baby’s clothes comprised of: cap, dress, underskirt. Doll has tenon joints on limbs. The right leg is missing as is the lower part of the left leg. The shoulders and head are painted and varnished. The face is white with pink cheeks and red lips. The eyes are painted black and eyebrows grey, a black cap is painted on with grey hair around the edges. The arms have been painted white but not varnished. There is a large groove in the back of the head and a hole in the top, it is not clear what purpose these features have. The doll carries a baby which is also made from wood and constructed in the same way with jointed limbs and painted features. The babies legs are intact and the lower part is painted white with red shoes, also un-varnished.
measurements : Length of doll 27cm x width 15.5cm length of baby without dress 8cm x width 4cm

item : Cap
number : D18.1
component : Whole
construction : Simple cap made in two parts with a seam at CB. Consisting of a fine net with diamond shaped holes. There are remains of lace and pink silk ribbon at the ends where the cap would have tied under the chin. The cap is sewn to the shawl at the back.
measurements : Height 4cm x Width 4cm

component : Fabric 1
construction : Diamond shaped net constructed in a lace technique
pattern : none
technique 1 : lace
technique 2 : not detected
twist yarn : S
material – other : cotton
colour – other : white
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : no

component : Ribbon
construction : Tiny remains of a pale pink silk ribbon
measurements : 0.2cm x 0.2cm
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : not detected
thread count ends / wales per cm : not detected
thread count picks / rows per cm : not detected
twist warp : not detected
twist weft : not detected
fibre – warp : silk
fibre – warp : silk
colour – warp : pink
colour – weft : pink
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : no
general observations : only a tiny fragment remains so no ID was done at this stage but it is very likely to be silk

component : Stitching
construction : Attaching the cap to the shawl at the back and tacking around the front which may have once held lace or ribbons in place.
technique 1 : hand sewn
technique 2 : tacking stitch
twist yarn : S,2S
material – other : cotton
colour – other : white
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : yes
general observations : One strand is tightly spun the other is loosely spun

item : Apron
number : D18.2
component : Whole
construction : Checked apron with turned edges on three sides, gathered up at the top and sewn to one edge of a cotton tape to tie around the waist.
measurements : Length 16.5cm x 24.5cm

component : Fabric 1
construction : Plain balanced weave mixed fibre. The yarns are of differing thicknesses.
pattern : checked
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : 17
thread count picks / rows per cm : 19
twist warp : z spun
twist weft : z spun
fibre – warp : cotton and linen
fibre – warp : cotton and linen
colour – warp : 4 white, 6 blue
colour – weft : 4 white, 6 blue
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : yes
general observations : The blue fibre is pure cotton but the white is a blend of cotton and linen

component : Fabric 2
construction : Plain woven tape with raw ends
measurements : Length 47.5cm x width 1cm
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : 24
thread count picks / rows per cm : 16
twist warp : Z
twist weft : Z
fibre – warp : cotton
fibre – warp : cotton
colour – warp : pale blue
colour – weft : pale blue
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : yes

component : Stitching
construction : Attaching apron to waistband tape, gathering the apron at the top and sewing the turned edges on the apron.
technique 1 : hand sewn
technique 2 : Gather stitch, slip stitch
twist yarn : Z,2S
material – other : cotton
colour – other : white
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : no

item : Bedgown
number : D18.3
component : Whole
construction : The bedgown is full length, almost as long as the skirt. The bodice part crosses left over right, there are no fastenings but it is tacked in place. The sleeves are made in two pieces with one short, shoulder section and a longer sleeve attached just above the elbow. The sleeves are full length and the cuffs are trimmed with a striped fabric. The upper parts of the sleeves are left raw because they cannot be seen but the lower part is turned at both ends. The skirt/tail and bodice are made in one piece, cut to shape under the arms and gathered with tacking stitches at the waist.
measurements : Length approx 19.5cm x width 30cm

component : Fabric 1
construction : Plain weave mixed fibre linsey-wolsey with some yarns bundled together to create a checked pattern
pattern : checked
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : 13
thread count picks / rows per cm : 14
twist warp : Z
twist weft : S
fibre – warp : linen and cotton separate yarns
fibre – warp : linen and wool, separate yarns
colour – warp : double white, 1 brown, double white, 12 brown
colour – weft : treble white, 11 black
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : yes
general observations : Warp: the brown yarn is linen the white is cotton. Weft: the black yarn is wool and the white is linen

component : Fabric 2
construction : Plain woven striped fabric used to trim the cuffs of the bedgown.
pattern : stripe
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : 30
thread count picks / rows per cm : 18
twist warp : z spun
twist weft : z spun
fibre – warp : cotton
fibre – warp : cotton
colour – warp : double red, 3 blue, double white, 3 blue, double white, 3 blue
colour – weft : blue
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : yes

component : Stitching 1
construction : Thread used to construct the bedgown, turn the edges and secure it to the layers beneath. The same thread is used to attatch the cuff trims
technique 1 : hand sewn
technique 2 : tacking stitch, slip stitch
twist yarn : Z,4S
material – other : cotton
colour – other : brown
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : yes

item : Skirt
number : D18.4
component : Whole
construction : The skirt is made in two pieces with alinsey-wolsey for the lower half and a plainer fabric at the top. The top has a slit at the CB, seamed LHS. The hem is turned and finished, the joining seam is turned to the inside but the edges are raw. The top part is gathered into a tape at the waist
measurements : Length 17 cm x circumference 37cm

component : Fabric 1
construction : Upper part of skirt is a glazed plain woven fabric
pattern : none
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : 20
thread count picks / rows per cm : 20
twist warp : Z
twist weft : Z
fibre – warp : cotton
fibre – warp : cotton
colour – warp : brown
colour – weft : brown
finish : glazed with an unknown material
microscopic analysis? : yes

component : Fabric 2
construction : Used to make the lower part of the skirt. Plain woven mixed yarn fabric with weft stripes
pattern : stripe
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : 13
thread count picks / rows per cm : 14
twist warp : Z
twist weft : S
fibre – warp : linen
fibre – warp : wool ( shoddy) and cotton
colour – warp : blue
colour – weft : 2 blue, 6 black, 6 red, 6 black
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : yes
general observations : The blue weft is cotton, the black weft is a mixture of red and brown wools with some shoddy fibres. The red weft is wool with some shoddy fibres. The warp is linen.

component : Fabric 3
construction : plain woven tape to which the skirt is sewn
pattern : none
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : not detected
thread count picks / rows per cm : not detected
twist warp : not detected
twist weft : not detected
fibre – warp : linen
fibre – warp : linen
colour – warp : white
colour – weft : white
finish : possibly starched
microscopic analysis? : no
general observations : Not able to gain enough access to take sample

component : Stitching 1
construction : Used to join the two fabrics together, hem the bottom of the skirt and attach it to the waistband.
technique 1 : hand sewn
technique 2 : running stitch, slip stitch
twist yarn : Z,4S
material – other : cotton
colour – other : brown
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : yes
general observations : same as construction thread for bedgown

item : Underskirt 1
number : D18.5
component : Whole
construction : Simple underskirt made in one piece with a finished seam at CB and turned hem, the top of the skirt is gathered at the waist.
measurements : Length approx 14cm x circumference 36cm

component : Fabric 1
construction : Plain woven fabric
pattern : none
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : 24
thread count picks / rows per cm : 28
twist warp : Z
twist weft : Z
fibre – warp : cotton
fibre – warp : cotton
colour – warp : white
colour – weft : white
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : no

component : Stitching 1
construction : Used to construct the underskirt, turn the hem and gather the waist.
technique 1 : hand sewn
technique 2 : Gather stitch, slip stitch
twist yarn : Z,3S
material – other : cotton
colour – other : white
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : yes

item : Underskirt 2
number : D18.6
component : Whole
construction : Simple underskirt made in two pieces with raw seams at the sides and turned hem. Unable to access the top of the skirt to see how it is finished.
measurements : Length approx 10cm x circumference 29cm

component : Fabric 1
construction : Plain closely woven fabric
pattern : none
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : 30
thread count picks / rows per cm : 38
twist warp : Z
twist weft : S
fibre – warp : cotton
fibre – warp : cotton
colour – warp : white
colour – weft : white
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : no

component : Stitching 1
construction : Used to construct the underskirt and turn the hem.
technique 1 : hand sewn
technique 2 : running stitch, slip stitch
twist yarn : Z,3S
material – other : cotton
colour – other : white
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : yes
general observations : The same thread as used for underskirt 1.

item : Shawl
number : D18.7
component : Whole
construction : The shawl is made from a triangular piece of fabric which has been gathered into pleats and secured. A fringe has been added to the lower edge.
measurements : Length 26cm x width 9cm

component : Fabric 1
construction : Warp-faced twill mixed fibre fabric with a lustrous yarn mixed with the wrap threads.
pattern : none
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : 2/1 twill
thread count ends / wales per cm : 20
thread count picks / rows per cm : 16
twist warp : S
twist weft : S
fibre – warp : wool and cotton
fibre – warp : wool
colour – warp : purple and white blend
colour – weft : black
finish : mercerization
microscopic analysis? : yes
general observations : The white fibres mixed in with the purple yarns appear to be mercerized cotton.

component : Fabric 2
construction : One length of decorative fringed braid applied to the lower edge of the shawl with braid decorated with leaf shaped patterns.
measurements : Length 34cm x width 2cm
pattern : leaf shape
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : not recorded
thread count ends / wales per cm : 20
thread count picks / rows per cm : 16
twist warp : not detected
twist weft : S
fibre – warp : silk
fibre – warp : silk
colour – warp : brown
colour – weft : brown
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : yes

component : Stitching 1
construction : Thread used to attach the braid to the shawl, gather the shawl into pleats and secure it at the waist.
technique 1 : tacking stitch
technique 2 : back stitch, tacking stitch
twist yarn : Z,4S
material – other : cotton
colour – other : brown
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : yes

item : Neckerchief
number : D18.8
component : Whole
construction : Small neckerchief gathered into pleats, covering the shoulders and extending down underneath the bedgown as far as the waist.
measurements : Length approx 8cm

component : Fabric 1
construction : Blue silk
pattern : none
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : 56
thread count picks / rows per cm : 96
twist weft : not detected
twist yarn : not detected
fibre – warp : silk
fibre – warp : silk
colour – warp : blue
colour – weft : blue
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : no

component : Stitching 1
construction : Tacked in place around the top of the bodice with the same thread as the bedgown
technique 1 : hand sewn
technique 2 : tacking stitch, slip stitch
twist yarn : Z,4S
material – other : cotton
colour – other : brown
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : yes

item : knitting
number : D18.9
component : Whole
construction : There are remains of knitting around the left wrist forming a sort of extra cuff but it is only attached at the top edge. It is possible that the rest has been lost or damaged.
measurements : Width 1cm x circumference 6cm

component : Knitting
construction : Hand knitting made flat and joined with tacking stitches at the top using the same thread as used on the bedgown.
technique 1 : knitting
technique 2 : stocking stitch
thread count ends / wales per cm : 6
thread count picks / rows per cm : 8
twist yarn : Z
material – other : wool
colour – other : brown
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : no

item : Baby’s dress
number : D18.10
component : Whole
construction : Floral printed dress made in three pieces. The main section is seamed down the right side with a dart sewn into the left side to create an A-line shape. The sleeves are made seperatley with seams under the arm and inserted into the bodice before gathering around the neck. The hem is turned but the cuffs are left raw.
measurements : Length 11cm x circumference 16cm

component : Fabric 1
construction : Plain woven fabric with printed design
pattern : floral
technique 1 : printed
technique 2 : woven, plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : 36
thread count picks / rows per cm : 32
twist warp : Z
twist weft : S
fibre – warp : cotton
fibre – warp : cotton
colour – warp : white
colour – weft : white
colour – other : Print: two blues on white
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : no

component : Stitching
construction : Used to sew the seam, hem, dart and gather at the neck.
technique 1 : hand sewn
technique 2 : running stitch, slip stitch
twist yarn : Z,3S
material – other : cotton
colour – other : white
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : no

item : Baby’s underskirt
number : D18.11
component : Whole
construction : Simple underskirt made in one piece with a seam at CB. The hem is not turned as it is a selvedge. The top of the skirt is gathered and tacked at the waist.
measurements : Length approx 8cm x circumference 14.5cm

component : Fabric 1
construction : Plain woven fabric
pattern : none
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : 26
thread count picks / rows per cm : 26
twist warp : Z
twist weft : Z
fibre – warp : cotton
fibre – warp : cotton
colour – warp : white
colour – weft : white
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : no

component : Stitching 1
construction : Used to sew the seam and gather the skirt at the waist.
technique 1 : hand sewn
technique 2 : tacking stitch, running stitch
twist yarn : Z,3S
material – other : cotton
colour – other : white
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : no

item : Baby’s cap
number : D18.12
component : Whole
construction : A cap made from a piece of silk ribbon. It is shaped with stitching at the back of the head and a frill has been added to cover the neck using the same fabric.
measurements : height approx 3cm x width 2cm

component : Fabric 1
construction : Cream silk ribbon with a thick green silk stripe woven in.
pattern : stripe
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : not detected
thread count ends / wales per cm : 32
thread count picks / rows per cm : 40
twist warp : not detected
twist weft : not detected
fibre – warp : silk
fibre – warp : silk
colour – warp : cream
colour – weft : cream and green
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : no
general observations : insufficient sample for weave analysis

component : Stitching 1
construction : used to sew the cap at the back and attach it to the dress at the front.
technique 1 : hand sewn
technique 2 : tacking stitch, running stitch
twist yarn : Z,3S
material – other : cotton
colour – other : white
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : no