Welsh costume doll 1

D1 Front-2D1 pair

 

This page consists of a brief summary followed by a very detailed description of the fabrics of each garment.
For more see:   The dolls project      the garments

Pembrokeshire Museum, no catalogue number

Female (D1) and male (D2) Welsh dolls in glass case.

There are still a lot of pins holding the fabric in place, suggesting that it was never completed properly and could not have been used as a toy.

Summary
The plain brown bedgown, tail and skirt are of cotton warp and wool weft (linsey woolsey). It is not clear exactly how the bodice, tail and skirt were constructed, but it appears that the bodice had a short, narrow tail, with additional pieces of fabric (of slightly different colour) added to both sides of the tail and held in place with pins. Normally the tail would be integral with the bodice and continue right around the back over a separate skirt. It is possible that the additional material for the tail was added to make it look right. If this couple of dolls were made to be displayed in a case with wooden back then the structure of the tail (with its exposed pins) would not have been visible.

The plain colour of the bedgown, and the short ‘tail’ is typical of Pembrokeshire gowns.

The short sleeves of the gown with a piece of silk near the end is common, but the silk band is normally black and the end of the sleeves is normally folded back. This lack of folding might be due to the fact that the fabric is thick and folding it would result in a bulky sleeve, but the sleeves of the jacket of the man in this pair has been folded over.

Provenance and History : none known
Date: late 19th century? but could be earlier except that the cuffs and trouser waistband tape on the male doll are machine stitched.

CONSERVATOR’S REPORT

For an explanation of the structure of this report see Welsh doll project

item : Doll
number : D1
component : Whole
construction : Female doll wearing tall hat, cap, bedgown, apron, skirt, separate sleeves, neckerchief, underskirt, chemise, stockings, shoes and holding knitting. Wooden head with rounded chest – (gesso layered). Painted face with hair visible beneath cap. Earthenware lower arms and hands. Stuffed cloth upper legs and upper arms, gesso layered lower legs.
measurements : height 47cm (including hat and shoes)

item : Hat
number : D1.1
component : Whole
construction : Tall hat with brim and tapered crown. Black hatband formed into a bow at side. Hat pinned to head with one pin running through hat band and hat.
measurements : height of crown 7.5cm, Circumference of crown tip 16cm, Circumference of crown base 19.5cm, Circumference of brim 41.5cm

component : Fabric 1
construction : Black silk plush – covers whole hat, vertical crown covering cut on cross, stitched and glued (?) in place
pattern : none
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : with napped pile
thread count ends / wales per cm : not counted
thread count picks / rows per cm : not counted
twist warp : not analsyed
twist weft : not analysed
fibre – warp : cotton?
fibre – weft : cotton?
material – other : silk pile
colour – warp : black/brown
colour – weft : black/brown
colour – other : black
finish : napped
microscopic analysis? : no
general observations : access difficult so analysis not fully possible. This type of plush defined by Waugh 1968.

component : Stiffening material
construction : Unknown – none visible or accessible. Presume to be buckram due to fine shape and curve of hat. See other hats for details of buckram identification
microscopic analysis? : no
general observations : no access to stiffening available

component : Hatband
construction : Ribbon tied as hatband with false bow at left hand side. Pin inserted through false bow and hat to head.
measurements : 1.8cm wide
pattern : Herringbone
technique 1 : Woven
technique 2 : 2/2 Twill, herringbone
thread count ends / wales per cm : 40
thread count picks / rows per cm : 40
twist warp : not analysed
twist weft : not analysed
fibre – warp : silk
fibre – weft : cotton
colour – warp : black
colour – weft : black
finish : cotton weft gummed/starched? before weaving
microscopic analysis? : yes

component : Inner hatband
construction : Shot effect inner hat band in pink and blue.
pattern : shot effect
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : not counted
thread count picks / rows per cm : not counted
twist warp : not analysed
twist weft : not analysed
fibre – warp : silk
fibre – weft : silk
colour – warp : pink / blue
colour – weft : pink / blue
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : no

component : Inner hatband lining
construction : Unidentified material, but imprint on shot silk indicates a coarse plain weave cellulosic fabric – a millinery fabric.
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : ?
thread count picks / rows per cm : ?
twist warp : ?
twist weft : ?
fibre – warp : cellulosic?
fibre – weft : cellulosic?
colour – warp : ?
colour – weft : ?
finish : starched?
general observations : not visible for analysis

component : Lining
construction : Lining material of plain weave silk – visible in top inside of crown.
pattern : none
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : not counted
thread count picks / rows per cm : not counted
twist warp : not analysed
twist weft : not analysed
fibre – warp : silk
fibre – weft : silk
colour – warp : yellow
colour – weft : yellow
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : no

component : Stitching
construction : Hand sewn – visible at seam of vertical crown sides, crown top and at seam joining crown to brim and around brim edge
technique 1 : hand sewn
technique 2 : not identified
twist yarn : not detected
material – other : cotton?
colour – other : black
finish : ?
microscopic analysis? : no

component : Cord
construction : Small piece cord used as neck tie – not analysed as partly disintegrated
material – other : cotton?
colour – other : biege
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : no

item : Cap
number : D1.2
component : Whole
construction : Cap of sprigged muslin made in one piece, pleated at back neck,edges trimmed with 2 rows of gathered lace. Silk looped ribbons inserted between lace rows around face. False bow of silk ribbon at back neck covering pleats.
measurements : not measured

component : Fabric 1
construction : A muslin fine fabric
pattern : none
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : 18
thread count picks / rows per cm : 15
twist warp : Z
twist weft : Z
fibre – warp : cotton
fibre – weft : cotton
colour – warp : white
colour – weft : white
finish : starched?
microscopic analysis? : no

component : Embroidery
construction : Sprigs hand stitched in thick yarn approximately 1cm apart 4-5 stitches in each sprig
measurements : 1cm apart
pattern : sprigged
technique 1 : embroidered
technique 2 : zig/zag type stitch
twist yarn : Z,3S
material – other : cotton
colour – other : cotton
finish : ?
microscopic analysis? : no

component : Lace
construction : Lace of two yarn thicknesses
measurements : Max 1.3cm wide
pattern : repeating pattern
technique 1 : lace
technique 2 : bobbin?
twist yarn : both thick and thin yarns Z
material – other : cotton
colour – other : white
finish : ?
microscopic analysis? : no

component : Ribbon

construction : Ribbon used for chin tie, loops between lace frills and centre back false bow. Same ribbon as used on Bedgown sleeves D1.4
measurements : 1.7cm wide
pattern : none but prominent selvedges
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : 54
thread count picks / rows per cm : 54
twist warp : I
twist weft : I
fibre – warp : silk
fibre – weft : silk
colour – warp : pale blue
colour – weft : pale blue
finish : ?
microscopic analysis? : no
general observations : Very fragile – fragment separated – now in sample bag.

component : Stitching
construction : Used to stitch ribbon bows in place
technique 1 : hand sewn
technique 2 : not identified
twist yarn : Z,3S
material – other : cotton
colour – other : white/undyed
finish : ?
microscopic analysis? : no

item : Apron
number : D1.3
component : Whole
construction : Apron of striped wool flannel gathered into and stitched to waistband, 0.8cm turned and herringbone stitched down LHS. 1cm hem turned and herringbone stitched along lower edge. Selvedge down RHS. Has the apron been altered ? tapes at waistband appear more recent than on skirt.
measurements : 20cm height including waistband, 22.5cm wide.

component : Fabric 1
construction : Striped wool flannel 6 ends blue, 1 end white, weft all blue
measurements : stripe repeat c. 1cm
pattern : stripe
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : 12
thread count picks / rows per cm : 10
twist warp : wool – Z spun, cotton Z,3S
twist weft : Z
fibre – warp : wool, cotton
fibre – weft : wool
colour – warp : 6 ends blue, 1 end white
colour – weft : blue
finish : ?
microscopic analysis? : no
general observations : noted multicolour in blue warp and weft – a mixture – needs further analysis –

component : Waistband Tape
construction : “India” tape folded over raw edge of gathered flannel skirt extending unfolded to form long ties which wrap around waist and are tied in half bow at Right Front
measurements : c. 1 cm wide
pattern : none
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : 32
thread count picks / rows per cm : 16
twist warp : Z
twist weft : Z
fibre – warp : cotton
fibre – weft : cotton
colour – warp : white
colour – weft : white
finish : ?
microscopic analysis? : no

component : Stitching
construction : Herringbone stitch down LHS and along hem. Dressmaker’s hemming at join of flannel to waistband
technique 1 : hand sewn
technique 2 : herringbone, dressmaker’s hemming.
twist yarn : Z,3S
material – other : cotton
colour – other : cotton
finish : ?
microscopic analysis? : no

item : Bedgown
number : D1.4
component : Whole
construction : Short bed gown, half length set in sleeves, low round neck line, bodice fronts overlap left over right and secured with two pins into body. Shoulder seams towards back. Front bodice pieces drawn into waist pleat at back and seamed diagonally to back panels from almost centre back waist to arm hole. Front bodices extend below waist into long rounded points (overlapped). Two back panels (bodice and skirt [tail] in one) joined with CB seam. Extra side back panels or peplum of different cloth attached at waist to side of long back panel. Three pleats to back below waist held in place by three pins. Centre pin holding fabric 2.8cm long, corroded. Pins holding fabric to pleats 2cm long and untarnished. Are added peplum sides of different fabric a later addition?
measurements : Centre back neck to waist 5.5cm, CB waist to lower edge of peplum 9.9cm

component : Fabric 1
construction : Weft faced linsey-wolsey used for whole
pattern : none
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : twill – herringbone
thread count ends / wales per cm : 20
thread count picks / rows per cm : c.14-16
twist warp : Z
twist weft : Z
fibre – warp : cotton
fibre – weft : wool
colour – warp : grey/blue
colour – weft : brown
finish : fulled and raised
microscopic analysis? : yes
general observations : cotton warp is entirely covered by wool weft so meeting definition of linsey wolsey

component : Fabric 2
construction : Weft faced linsey-wolsey used for extra panels to side back below waist.
pattern : none
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : twill
thread count ends / wales per cm : not counted
thread count picks / rows per cm : not counted
twist warp : Z
twist weft : not detected
fibre – warp : cotton
fibre – weft : wool
colour – warp : brown
colour – weft : brown
finish : fulled and raised
microscopic analysis? : yes
general observations : thicker fabric to Fabric 1 with warp and weft inaccessible beneath raised surface

component : Ribbon
construction : Folded ribbons sewn to lower edges of sleeves around elbow height same ribbon as used on cap D1.2
measurements : 1.7cm wide
pattern : none
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : 54
thread count picks / rows per cm : 54
twist warp : I
twist weft : I
fibre – warp : silk
fibre – weft : silk
colour – warp : pale blue
colour – weft : pale blue
finish : ?
microscopic analysis? : none

component : Stitching 1
construction : Used in seams
technique 1 : hand sewn
technique 2 : running stitch
twist yarn : Z,3S
material – other : linen
colour – other : brown
finish : ?
microscopic analysis? : yes
general observations : assume linen – definitely bast fibres –

component : Stitching 2
construction : Used to stitched additional side panels to back
technique 1 : hand sewn
technique 2 : running stitch
twist yarn : S,3Z
material – other : cotton
colour – other : black
finish : mercerised
microscopic analysis? : yes
general observations : more recent thread to stitching 1

item : Skirt
number : D1.5
component : Whole
construction : Skirt made of one rectangular piece of fabric (same as Fabric 1 in Bedgown 1.4) with CB seam with 7cm opening at top to waistband. Gathered into waistband of white cotton tape with black stitching, 1″ hem (2.5cm) herringbone stitched. 2 pins used to secure waistband together at waist CB – fixed to doll, pins corroded (white /green – could be brass?)
measurements : Centre Back 21cm, circumference of hem c.60cm

component : Fabric 1
construction : Weft faced flannel / linsey-wolsey – same fabric as in Bedgown D1.4
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : twill – herringbone
thread count ends / wales per cm : 20
thread count picks / rows per cm : c.14-16
twist warp : Z
twist weft : Z
fibre – warp : cotton
fibre – weft : wool
colour – warp : grey/blue
colour – weft : wool [brown]
finish : fulled and raised
microscopic analysis? : yes

component : Waistband tape
construction : Tape sewn over gathered edge of skirt
measurements : c.2cm wide
pattern : none
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : 32
thread count picks / rows per cm : 20
twist warp : Z,?S
twist weft : Z
fibre – warp : cotton
fibre – weft : cotton
colour – warp : white/undyed/bleached
colour – weft : white/undyed/bleached
colour – other : cotton
finish : glazed?
microscopic analysis? : none

component : Stitching 1
construction : Same thread used throughout – CB seam running stitch, herringbone at hem, gathering and hemming at waistband
technique 1 : hand sewn
technique 2 : running stich, gathering stitch, dressmaker’s hemming, herringbone
twist yarn : Z,3S
material – other : cotton
colour – other : black
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : yes

item : Underskirt
number : D1.6
component : Whole
construction : Red brushed cotton underskirt made of one rectangular piece of cloth, centre back seam with 4cm un-sewn seam opening to waist. Gathered into tape waistband. 2.5cm (1″) single turned hem herringbone stitched. CB seam – open seam with running stitch. Waistband CB opening sticthed together
measurements : Centre Back 19.5cm, circumference of hem c.42cm

component : Fabric 1
construction : Red brushed cotton used for whole
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : 18
thread count picks / rows per cm : 12
twist warp : Z
twist weft : Z but thicker than warp
fibre – warp : cotton
fibre – weft : cotton
colour – warp : red
colour – weft : red
finish : brushed/raised nap
general observations : cloth probably dyed in the piece and not yarn – dye take up not consistent through yarns and white specks visible.

component : Waistband tape
construction : Sewn over gathered skirt of underskirt- assume same as in D1.5
measurements : c.2cm wide
pattern : none
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : 32
thread count picks / rows per cm : 20
twist warp : Z,?S
twist weft : Z
fibre – warp : cotton
fibre – weft : cotton
colour – warp : white/undyed/bleached
colour – weft : white/undyed/bleached
colour – other : cotton
finish : glazed?
microscopic analysis? : none

component : Stitching 1
construction : Used in CB seam and herringbone stitching to hem
technique 1 : hand sewn
technique 2 : running and herringbone stitch
twist yarn : Z,4S
material – other : cotton
colour – other : red
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : no

component : Stitching 2
construction : Used at waistband for attachment to underskirt and sewing waistband ends together.
technique 1 : hand sewn
technique 2 : not identified
twist yarn : Z,6S
material – other : cotton
colour – other : white/undyed/bleached
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : yes
general observations : note -6 ply

item : Chemise
number : D1.7
component : Whole
construction : Chemise made of one piece rectangular cloth, open seam at RH side, 0.5cm seam allowance, 0.8cm single turn hem. All stitched with running stitch. Assume Chemise is full length and hangs from shoulders – X-ray suggests this.
measurements : Centre back 13cm, circumference at hem c. 26cm

component : Fabric 1
construction : Glazed cotton
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : 24
thread count picks / rows per cm : 20
twist warp : Z
twist weft : S
fibre – warp : cotton
fibre – weft : cotton
colour – warp : white
colour – weft : white
finish : starched
microscopic analysis? : yes
general observations : could see deposits of starch/stiffening material within weave of fabric under microscope.

component : Stitching 1
construction : Used for seams and hems (same as stitching 2 in D1.6)
technique 1 : hand sewn
technique 2 : not identified
twist yarn : Z,6S
material – other : cotton
colour – other : white/undyed/bleached
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : yes
general observations : note -6 ply

item : Sleeves
number : D1.8
component : Whole
construction : Pair of Sleeves, gathered at wrist, only visible from elbow to wrist.

component : Fabric 1
construction : Printed cotton used for whole sleeves
pattern : printed floral and tear-drop design.
technique 1 : printed, woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : 32
thread count picks / rows per cm : 27
twist warp : Z
twist weft : S
fibre – warp : cotton
fibre – weft : cotton
colour – warp : undyed?
colour – weft : undyed?
colour – other : printed colours – background red with details in yellow, green, black, white, blue
finish : thick printing pigment stiffens fabric
microscopic analysis? : none

component : Stitching 1
construction : Used to gather fabric to wrists
technique 1 : hand sewn
technique 2 : gathering stitch
twist yarn : Z,3S
material – other : cotton
colour – other : red
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : no

item : Neckerchief
number : D1.9
component : Whole
construction : Neckerchief wrapped over shoulders and tucked into bedgown neck left over right. Folded edge to neck on the cross

component : Fabric 1
construction : Used for whole
pattern : printed floral pattern
technique 1 : printed, woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : 34
thread count picks / rows per cm : 30
twist warp : Z
twist weft : Z
fibre – warp : cotton
fibre – weft : cotton
colour – warp : white
colour – weft : white
colour – other : white/undyed background with foliage in red and pale blue
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : no

item : Stockings
number : D1.10
component : Whole
construction : Knee length stockings – LH stocking higher than LH.
measurements : from top of shoe to top of stocking LH – 9cm, RH 7.5cm

component : Knitting
construction : Circular knitted with stitch increases up the centre back
technique 1 : knitted
technique 2 : stocking stitch
thread count ends / wales per cm : 4
thread count picks / rows per cm : 6
twist yarn : Z,2S
material – other : black
colour – other : wool
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : none

item : Shoes
number : D1.11
component : Whole
construction : Pair of leather shoes, upper made in two parts, leather sole with block heel. Upper edge to ankel trimmed with black ribbon, black ribbon bow
measurements : 5.5cm long

component : Upper
construction : Leather uppers
material – other : leather
colour – other : black
finish : waxed/polished?
microscopic analysis? : no

component : Ribbon
construction : Used to bind top edge and to form a bow
measurements : 1cm wide
pattern : none
technique 1 : woven
technique 2 : plain
thread count ends / wales per cm : 48
thread count picks / rows per cm : 32
twist warp : not detected
twist weft : not detected
fibre – warp : silk
fibre – weft : silk
colour – warp : black
colour – weft : black
colour – other : silk
finish : weighted?
microscopic analysis? : yes

component : Threads
construction : Used to tie shoes
twist yarn : Z,3S
material – other : cotton
colour – other : black
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : no

item : Knitting and needles
number : D1.12
component : Whole
construction : Sample of circular knitting held in left hand with three steel needles with attached ball of wool in right hand. This knitting is the same as the stockings found in D2.

component : Knitting
construction : Circular knitting
measurements : 3.5 cm high, circumference 8cm
pattern : none
technique 1 : knitted
technique 2 : stocking
thread count ends / wales per cm : 5
thread count picks / rows per cm : 5
twist yarn : Z,4S
material – other : wool
colour – other : pale blue
finish : none
microscopic analysis? : no

component : Needles
construction : Three needles
measurements : 5.5cm long – size?